In this work, verbal descriptions of visual artworks as well as passages excerpted from books and essays have been transcribed into Braille. Each page is photographed in a way that interprets an essential element of the text that it features, layering description onto description and questioning what exactly is lost or gained in translation. The transfiguration of tactile code into printed image serves as a metaphor, both for the power of photography to aestheticize the mundane and for the limitations inherent in the act of recording the world in two dimensions.



1.  Connotation Procedures: Photogenia

Excerpt from the essay The Photographic Message by Roland Barthes, 1961, in which he maintains that techniques of lighting, exposure, and printing comprise the meaning of a photographic image.


2.  Connotation Procedures: Aestheticism

Excerpt from The Photographic Message discussing the implications of employing certain artistic styles to make a photograph that is also an art object.


3.  Connotation Procedures: Text & Image

Excerpt from The Photographic Message in which Barthes concludes about captions, “it is impossible…that the words duplicate the image; in the movement from one structure to the other, second signifieds are inevitably developed.”


4.  Irises by Vincent van Gogh, 1889

Figurative description of van Gogh’s well known painting in Art Beyond Sight: Handbook for Museums and Educators, published by the non-profit organization Art Education for the Blind.


5.  Havana Woman in her Home by Kim Llerena, 2011

Description of an unpublished photograph by the artist.


6.  Alabama Tenant Farmer Wife by Walker Evans, 1936

Description of Evans’ well-known photograph of Allie Mae Burroughs.


7.  Response to the sky at night

Prose written by the artist.


8.  “I think it’s what you call seeing-beyond,” Jonas said.

Excerpt from pages 91-94 of the novel The Giver by Lois Lowry, 1993 (Random House 2002 edition), in which the protagonist lacks adequate language for describing the color red.


9.  Red